LTG James R. Clapper, Jr., USAF

November 1991 - August 1995


General Clapper came to DIA following the collapse of the Soviet Union as the predominant focus of US intelligence and in the aftermath of Operation DESERT STORM. DIA improved crisis management and support to the decision maker and warfighter based on the experience gained during the Gulf War. The end of the Cold War led to the most fundamental reexamination of US national security policy since the 1940s.

In November 1991, the Agency created the National Military Joint Intelligence Center (NMJIC), replacing National Military Intelligence Center and retaining many of the positive attributes of the wartime Department of Defense Joint Intelligence Center. DIA also significantly expanded its support to the Joint Staff. The Gulf War experience prompted DIA to improve on its National Military Intelligence Support Team concept by adding CIA and NSA members to the DIA element and redesignating them National Intelligence Support Teams (NISTs). The Military Intelligence Board, chaired by the DIA Director, continued its important role after the War coordinating intelligence support.

This climate of systemic change also compelled a review of DIA roles and organization to meet the challenges of a new era of regional conflict and, at the same time, a dramatic reductions in resources. General Clapper restructured DIA to improve flexibility and cooperation with Service intelligence organizations. He also reduced management overhead and returned to the basics focusing on the missions of military intelligence and working within the common functional areas of collection, production, and infrastructure. This achieved unprecedented integration of effort among DIA, the Military Services, and the Combatant Commands.

The Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (AFMIC), and the Missile and Space Intelligence Center (MSIC), associated with the Army for over 30 and 50 years respectively, became elements of DIA in January 1992. This was part of the continuing effort to consolidate intelligence production and make it more efficient.

DIA provided intelligence support to US and United Nations forces involved in such places as Somalia, Haiti, and the former Yugoslavia, as well as for operations in Iraq and Korea. In 1994, DIA received a third Joint Meritorious Unit Award for support to these operations.